The cross-border provision of financial services poses a major challenge to address in the context of Brexit. The total value of exports of British financial and related services exceeds EUR100bn.
Poland doesn't differ very much from Western Europe in terms of state ownership of enterprises and the degree of regulatory interference. The country is more ”statist” than the United States and Great Britain, but less than France or Germany.
Education is one of the most important tasks of the state, the major problem for families with children of school age, and a significant problem for enterprises looking for suitably skilled employees.
The current financial framework is the last European Union budget that is generous to Poland. The funds can be used until 2022, but after that the principles of cohesion policy will change.
The factor deciding the pace of economic growth is the quality of the economic policy. There is no evidence that the adoption of the single currency inhibits economic growth.
The agreement between the European Union and the United Kingdom on mutual access to the markets after Brexit may be conditional upon the establishment of a fund supporting EU countries similar to the one financed by Norway.
In spite of the EU directive recommending the application of the fiscal rules and the supervision of the budget targets, in the years 2010-2016 only seven EU member states reduced their debt-to-GDP ratio.
Europe should be afraid of American protectionism, as well as of turbulences in global financial markets triggered by the US budget deficit, growing inflation and protectionism.
The Stability and Growth Pact says the EU countries have to maintain a fiscal deficit no higher than 3 per cent of the GDP and reduce their public debt below 60 per cent of the GDP. All the countries have decreased the fiscal deficit, but not the level of debt.
The principles of the single market of the European Union include the free movement of goods, capital and people. But the biggest challenges are faced in the case of the freedom of cross-border provision of services.