The European migration crisis of 2015-2016 is now a thing of the past. But Europe needs immigration policies. “We need to take into consideration the values and beliefs of the EU nations,” says Michael C. Burda, an economist in the Humboldt University of Berlin.
Ukrainian citizens are an important potential for Poland. In order not to waste the opportunity Poland needs to ensure their integration, says Paweł Kaczmarczyk, PhD, Director of the Centre of Migration Research, Warsaw University.
An elderly lady once said “we were promised a long life, but all we got is old age”. Progressing loss of independence and a sense of uselessness are a source of anguish for seniors and generate problems and costs for societies.
In 2018, the 28 European Union member states issued a total sum of over 3 million residence permits to non-EU nationals. Poland was the most generous country in terms of the amount of permits, having issued over 600,000.
Despite an increase in the fertility rate between 2005 and 2018, the demographic crisis in Russia has not been brought to a halt. The main causes of the crisis are the high mortality and poor health of its inhabitants.
“Many villages in Poland, not only in the eastern part of the country, are depopulating at an alarming rate,” says Professor Monika Stanny from the Institute of Rural and Agricultural Development of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
Low fertility and increasing life expectancy in most of the world's economies are causing a decline in the natural interest rate. Too restrictive monetary policy may increase the risk of the economy falling into a deflationary trap.