Ukraine is waiting for the EU to take further steps liberalizing the access of Ukrainian goods to the European market. At the same time, however, Ukraine is not doing enough to ensure that companies from European countries are able to enjoy equal access to the Ukrainian market.
Countries in Central and Southeast Europe (CSE) show larger share of value added by foreign-controlled enterprises to their economies than their peers in western and southern Europe. They also have a higher share of foreign companies and the value added by is still disproportionately high.
2020 will be another difficult year for the European automotive industry. Not only because of the coronavirus but also concerns about whether customers will start buying electric cars from the beginning of 2020.
Poland's dominant position in EU road transport is a result of the growing trade turnover, the liberalization of access to the market of EU transport services and the high price competitiveness of Polish companies.
In 2018, only 12 countries of the EU had already met the requirement related to the share of renewable sources in energy consumption. The importance of RES in Poland has started to grow again but this is still not enough to achieve the 15 per cent target adopted for 2020.
Countries trying to attract investors have developed Citizenship by Investment Programs (CIP) and Golden Visa programs for foreign investors. These are programs under which states offer citizenship and passports to real estate investors, state development funds and government bonds.
French President Emmanuel Macron had warned in late 2019 that any country not signed up to ambitious climate plan for 2050 pact would not get financial assistance, with Poland still maintaining its objections and refusing to endorse the climate-neutral target.
A resumption of lending in Russia by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) remains a distant perspective, even after the restart of the Ukraine peace settlement. Nevertheless, the EBRD is facing a competition from Moscow in the CIS.
82 per cent of EU subsidies goes to 20 per cent of the largest agricultural farms. The Common Agricultural Policy in its present form is pushing European agricultural to a dead end: it causes the sector to be dominated by big, industrialized farms.
In the 15 years since the accession to the European Union Poland has modernized its economy and has made great progress in the comprehensive modernization of the country, including a reconstruction of the transport infrastructure.