A resumption of lending in Russia by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) remains a distant perspective, even after the restart of the Ukraine peace settlement. Nevertheless, the EBRD is facing a competition from Moscow in the CIS.
82 per cent of EU subsidies goes to 20 per cent of the largest agricultural farms. The Common Agricultural Policy in its present form is pushing European agricultural to a dead end: it causes the sector to be dominated by big, industrialized farms.
In the 15 years since the accession to the European Union Poland has modernized its economy and has made great progress in the comprehensive modernization of the country, including a reconstruction of the transport infrastructure.
The European Union is the largest single market in the world, governed by uniform rules set out in the directives and regulations. However, the interpretation of these rules is determined by the EU bureaucracy.
Poland has one of the most balanced economies in Europe. It meets almost all the criteria of macroeconomic balance introduced by the European Union in order to assess whether there is a risk of the outbreak of another crisis.
A dispute over posted workers, black PR concerning Polish food, as well as intentional restrictions on Polish vodka exports - these are just some of the protectionist measures undertaken in the EU countries.
Within the EU negotiations concerning the introduction of even more demanding standards for CO2 reduction are underway together with the promotion of renewable energy sources and increased energy efficiency.